Instalar Nagios Network Monitoring System


Preparing Your System
First you need to install the following packages
sudo apt-get install apache2
sudo apt-get install build-essential
sudo apt-get install libgd2-xpm-dev
1) Create Account Information
Become the root user.
sudo -s
Create a new nagios user account and give it a password.
#/usr/sbin/useradd nagios
#passwd nagios
On Ubuntu server edition , you will need to also add a nagios group (it’s not created by default). You should be able to skip this step on desktop editions of Ubuntu.
#/usr/sbin/groupadd nagios
#/usr/sbin/usermod -G nagios nagios
Create a new nagcmd group for allowing external commands to be submitted through the web interface. Add both the nagios user and the apache user to the group.
#/usr/sbin/groupadd nagcmd
#/usr/sbin/usermod -G nagcmd nagios
#/usr/sbin/usermod -G nagcmd www-data
2) Download Nagios and the Plugins
Create a directory for storing the downloads.
#mkdir ~/downloads
#cd ~/downloads
Download the source code tarballs of both Nagios and the Nagios plugins (visit for links to the latest versions). At the time of writing, the latest versions of Nagios and the Nagios plugins were 2.10 and 1.4.10, respectively.
3) Compile and Install Nagios
Extract the Nagios source code tarball.
#cd ~/downloads
#tar xzf nagios-3.0.3.tar.gz
#cd nagios-3.0.3
Run the Nagios configure script, passing the name of the group you created earlier like so:
#./configure --with-command-group=nagcmd
Compile the Nagios source code.
#make all
Install binaries, init script, sample config files and set permissions on the external command directory.
#make install
#make install-init
#make install-config
#make install-commandmode
Don’t start Nagios yet - there’s still more that needs to be done…
4) Customize Configuration
Sample configuration files have now been installed in the /usr/local/nagios/etc directory. These sample files should work fine for getting started with Nagios. You’ll need to make just one change before you proceed…
Edit the /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg config file with your favorite editor and change the email address associated with the nagiosadmin contact definition to the address you’d like to use for receiving alerts.
#cp /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg.old
#nano /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg
5) Configure the Web Interface
Install the Nagios web config file in the Apache conf.d directory.
#make install-webconf
Create a nagiosadmin account for logging into the Nagios web interface. Remember the password you assign to this account - you’ll need it later.
#htpasswd -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/htpasswd.users nagiosadmin
Restart Apache to make the new settings take effect.
#/etc/init.d/apache2 reload
6) Compile and Install the Nagios Plugins
Extract the Nagios plugins source code tarball.
#cd ~/downloads
#tar xzf nagios-plugins-1.4.12.tar.gz
#cd nagios-plugins-1.4.12
Compile and install the plugins.
#./configure --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios
#make install
7) Start Nagios
Configure Nagios to automatically start when the system boots.
#ln -s /etc/init.d/nagios /etc/rcS.d/S99nagios
Verify the sample Nagios configuration files.
#/usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg
If there are no errors, start Nagios.
#/etc/init.d/nagios start
8) Login to the Web Interface
You should now be able to access the Nagios web interface at the URL below. You’ll be prompted for the username (nagiosadmin) and password you specified earlier.
Click on the “Service Detail” navbar link to see details of what’s being monitored on your local machine. It will take a few minutes for Nagios to check all the services associated with your machine, as the checks are spread out over time.
9) Other Modifications
If you want to receive email notifications for Nagios alerts, you need to install the mailx (Postfix) package.
#apt-get install mailx
You’ll have to edit the Nagios email notification commands found in /usr/local/nagios/etc/commands.cfg and change any ‘/bin/mail’ references to ‘/usr/bin/mail’. Once you do that you’ll need to restart Nagios to make the configuration changes live.
#/etc/init.d/nagios restart

Installing NagVis

cd ~/downloads
tar xzf nagvis-1.3.tar.gz
mv nagvis-1.3 nagvis
mv nagvis /usr/local/nagios/share
ls -l /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis
cd /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis

cp etc/nagvis.ini.php-sample etc/nagvis.ini.php
nano etc/nagvis.ini.php

grep -e '^User' /etc/apache2/httpd.conf ou grep -e 'USER' /etc/apache2/envvars
para checar o usuário a dar permissão nas pastas abaixo.

chown www-data /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis -R
chmod 664 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/etc/nagvis.ini.php
chmod 775 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/nagvis/images/maps
chmod 664 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/nagvis/images/maps/*
chmod 775 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/etc/maps
chmod 664 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/etc/maps/*
chmod 775 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/var
chmod 664 /usr/local/nagios/share/nagvis/var/*


Watch the Maps
You should now be able to watch your defined maps in your browser:


Não deixe de conferir nosso novo blog sobre Linux em : Ubuntu "4us"

Configurar AMAROK para utilizar banco de dados MySQL

Link :

Create a root password for MySQL, if you have not already done so.
$ mysql -u root
set password for root@localhost = password('xxxxxxx');
flush privileges;
Of course change xxxxxx to the password you want.
Once you have done that, you must create a MySQL database and a user for amarok for through any usual method. You can just use the "mysql" command: (it will ask for your MySQL root password)
$ mysql -p -u root
USE amarok;
In the above example, a database called "amarok" and a user called "amarok" were created. This user can access the database from localhost using the password "PASSWORD_CHANGE_ME". To allow access from remote hosts, use amarokuser@'%'.
It is very important that you 'GRANT ALL' privileges to user "amarok". In particular, "amarok" needs ALTER privileges on its database.
Once a database exists, open the Configure Amarok screen (found in the Settings menu), and go to the Collection tab. Change the drop-down menu from SQLite to MySQL. You will have to specify the host ("localhost" if the database is in your local box), port (3306 is the common value), and the name of the database that you have created for it ("amarok" in our example). Additionally, the username and password of a user who has write access to the given database needs to be specified (in our example, the user is "amarok", and the password is "PASSWORD_CHANGE_ME").

Personalizando bookmarks e diretórios padrão

Para alterar os bookmarks do gnome ubuntu altere o arquivo abaixo:

gedit ~/.gtk-bookmarks

file:///home/Public Public
file:///home/Data/Softs Softs

Para alterar os diretórios padrão no gnome ubuntu altere o arquivo abaixo

gedit ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs

# This file is written by xdg-user-dirs-update
# If you want to change or add directories, just edit the line you're
# interested in. All local changes will be retained on the next run
# Format is XDG_xxx_DIR="$HOME/yyy", where yyy is a shell-escaped
# homedir-relative path, or XDG_xxx_DIR="/yyy", where /yyy is an
# absolute path. No other format is supported.
XDG_DESKTOP_DIR="$HOME/Área de Trabalho"
XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR="$HOME/Área de Trabalho"

Dê uma olhada nos arquivos e diretórios abaixo para alterar padrões para todos os usuários:

Os programas abaixo podem ser úteis:


Samba, várias configurações


Link Abaixo:

Faça com que seus usuários autentiquem em um domínio do NT. Neste caso é mandatório o share "netlogon", pois lá que você vai colocar os scripts de logon, arquivos de policiamento (o famoso config.pol).

Esta configuração estava autenticando em LDAP, mas tirei para deixá-la mais simples, autenticando na base de dados do sistema mesmo. Note que esta configuração está com um anti-vírus em sua configuração, mas se você quiser, pode desabilitar...

Tome cuidado com os paths pois são diferentes dos seus. Cuidado com os diretórios dos usuários (/home/usuario), pois /home/usuario nunca deve ter permisão 777, e sim, 700, ok?


# #
# smb.conf: Samba server configuration file #
# #

# Global parameters #

# Domain/name/description
workgroup = TESTGROUP
netbios name = BASSET-HOUND
server string = Woof-woof!

# Printing
printcap name = cups
printing = cups
cups options = "raw"
use client driver = yes
show add printer wizard = no

# Network interfaces
interfaces = lo, eth0
bind interfaces only = yes

# Message/log level
log level = 2
log file = /var/log/samba/samba.log
max log size = 100000
syslog = 0
debug timestamp = yes

# This server will act as PDC (Primary Domain Controller)
security = user
domain logons = yes
preferred master = yes
domain master = yes
os level = 65

# WINS support
wins support = no

# Passwords will be...?
encrypt passwords = yes
null passwords = no

# Logon path
logon path = \\%L\profile
logon home = \\%L\home
logon drive = H:

# Logon script (DOS textfile format)
logon script = logon.cmd

# Allow users from "Domain Admins" group to join the domain
enable privileges = yes

# Administrative users
admin users = @adm

# Recommended optimizations from
smb ports = 139 445
name resolve order = wins bcast hosts
utmp = yes
time server = yes
template shell = /bin/false
winbind use default domain = no
map acl inherit = yes
strict locking = yes

# TCP/sockect options
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192

# Charset support (intl support)
dos charset = CP850
unix charset = ISO8859-1

# Don't try to lock these files
veto files = /*.eml/*.nws/*.{*}/
veto oplock files = /*.doc/*.xls/*.mdb/

# Yeah. We can hide something!
hidedotfiles = yes

# Simulate Windows's Recycle Bin
recycle:repository = .trash
recycle:keeptree = true
recycle:touch = true
recycle:versions = true
recycle:exclude = *.tmp|*.temp|*.o|*.obj|~$*|*.$$$
recycle:excludedir = /tmp
ecycle:noversions = .doc|.xls|.ppt|.dbf|.nsx|.idx|.dbt
recycle:maxsize = 0

# Virus scanner: samba-vscan
vfs object = vscan-clamav
vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf

# Shares #
comment = Network Logon Service
path = /home/netlogon
guest ok = yes
browseable = no
writable = no
share modes = no
read only = yes
vfs object = vscan-clamav
vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf

comment = %U's home
path = /home/users/%U
browseable = yes
writeable = yes
create mask = 0600
directory mask = 0700
vfs objects = recycle
vfs object = vscan-clamav
vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf

comment = %U's profile
path = /home/users/%U/.profile
browseable = yes
guest ok = yes
profile acls = yes
writeable = yes
create mask = 0600
directory mask = 0700
vfs object = vscan-clamav
vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf

comment = Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
printable = Yes
guest ok = Yes
browseable = no
printer admin = @adm

workgroup = GRUPO
netbios name = SERVIDOR
vfs objects = recycle
recycle:keeptree = yes
recycle:versions = yes
recycle:repository = /var/samba/trash/%U
recycle:exclude = *.tmp, *.log, *.obj, ~*.*, *.bak, *.iso
recycle:exclude_dir = tmp, cache
path = /mnt/sda2/engenharia
writable = yes
valid users = +engenheiros
path = /mnt/gerencia
writable = yes
valid users = paulo, rebeca
hosts allow = micro3, micro4
browseable = no
path = /var/samba/trash/%U
writable = yes
Link Interessante:

Link Interessante:

LInk Interessante:

Bacula Web


sudo bash
apt-get install unp
unp bacula-gui-1.38.5.tar.gz
cd bacula-gui-1.38.5
mv bacula-web /var/www
apt-get install pear php5-pear php5-gd php5-mysql

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

/var/www/bacula-web/configs/bacula.conf /var/www/bacula-web/configs/bacula.conf.old

Now you need to edit the /var/www/bacula-web/configs/bacula.conf file and put your preferences as well as ensuring that the database configuration parameters point to the Bacula database you are using.

After installing all these we need to enable gd and mysql modules

cp /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini.old
nano /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Testing your bacula-web
Go to http://your ip address/bacula-web/test.php


Instalação All in One Hp Photosmart C7280



É aconselhável não ser root.

Client de Torrent em PHP

Esse cliente permite fazer download de bittorrent em uma págna web de seu servidor linux

Instalar com comando

apt-get install torrentflux

Mais um How-tode DNS BIND9 com UBUNTU

Esse fez funcionar:

Enable The root Account

After the reboot you can login with your previously created username (e.g. administrator). Because we have to run all the steps from this tutorial as root user, so we will enable the root account.
sudo passwd root
and give root a password. Afterwards we can switch root by running

5 Install The SSH Server (Optional)

If you did not install the OpenSSH server during the system installation, you can do it now:
apt-get install ssh openssh-server
From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Ubuntu 8.04 LTS server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.

6 Install vim-full (Optional)

I'll use vi as my text editor in this tutorial. The default vi program has some strange behavior on Ubuntu; to fix this, we install vim-full:
apt-get install vim-full
(You don't have to do this if you use a different text editor such as joe or nano.)

7 Configure The Network

Because the Ubuntu installer has configured our system to get its network settings via DHCP, we have to change that now because a server should have a static IP address. Edit /etc/network/interfaces and adjust it to your needs (in this example setup I will use the IP address
vi /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

Please make sure your network configuration are set correctly, feel free to change that based on your network configuration.
Then restart your network:
/etc/init.d/networking restart
Then edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:
vi /etc/hosts     localhost.localdomain localhost      server1

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts
Now run
echo > /etc/hostname
/etc/init.d/ start
Afterwards, run
hostname -f
Both should show now.

8 Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation

Edit /etc/apt/sources.list. Comment out or remove the installation CD from the file and make sure that the universe and multiverse repositories are enabled. It should look like this:
vi /etc/apt/sources.list
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 8.04 _Hardy Heron_ - Release i386 (20080423.2)]/ hardy main restricted
#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 8.04 _Hardy Heron_ - Release i386 (20080423.2)]/ hardy main restricted
# See for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.
deb hardy main restricted
deb-src hardy main restricted
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb hardy-updates main restricted
deb-src hardy-updates main restricted
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
deb hardy universe
deb-src hardy universe
deb hardy-updates universe
deb-src hardy-updates universe
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb hardy multiverse
deb-src hardy multiverse
deb hardy-updates multiverse
deb-src hardy-updates multiverse
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
# deb hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu
## users.
# deb hardy partner
# deb-src hardy partner
deb hardy-security main restricted
deb-src hardy-security main restricted
deb hardy-security universe
deb-src hardy-security universe
deb hardy-security multiverse
deb-src hardy-security multiverse
Then run
apt-get update
to update the apt package database and
apt-get upgrade
to install the latest updates (if there are any).

9 Disable AppArmor (This is a must for things to go well here)

AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security, which usually causes more problems than advantages. Therefore I disable it.
We can disable it like this:
/etc/init.d/apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

10 Install the DNS Server

apt-get install bind9
For security reasons we want to run BIND chrooted so we have to do the following steps:
/etc/init.d/bind9 stop
Edit the file /etc/default/bind9 so that the daemon will run as the unprivileged user bind, chrooted to /var/lib/named. Modify the line: OPTIONS="-u bind" so that it reads OPTIONS="-u bind -t /var/lib/named":
vi /etc/default/bind9

OPTIONS="-u bind -t /var/lib/named"
# Set RESOLVCONF=no to not run resolvconf
Create the necessary directories under /var/lib:
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/etc
mkdir /var/lib/named/dev
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/var/cache/bind
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/var/run/bind/run
Then move the config directory from /etc to /var/lib/named/etc:

mv /etc/bind /var/lib/named/etc
Create a symlink to the new config directory from the old location (to avoid problems when bind gets updated in the future):
ln -s /var/lib/named/etc/bind /etc/bind
Make null and random devices, and fix permissions of the directories:
mknod /var/lib/named/dev/null c 1 3
mknod /var/lib/named/dev/random c 1 8
chmod 666 /var/lib/named/dev/null /var/lib/named/dev/random
chown -R bind:bind /var/lib/named/var/*
chown -R bind:bind /var/lib/named/etc/bind
We need to modify /etc/default/syslogd so that we can still get important messages logged to the system logs. Modify the line: SYSLOGD="" so that it reads: SYSLOGD="-a /var/lib/named/dev/log":
vi /etc/default/syslogd

# Top configuration file for syslogd

# Full documentation of possible arguments are found in the manpage
# syslogd(8).

# For remote UDP logging use SYSLOGD="-r"
SYSLOGD="-a /var/lib/named/dev/log"
Restart the logging daemon:
/etc/init.d/sysklogd restart
Start up BIND, and check /var/log/syslog for errors:
/etc/init.d/bind9 start

11 Configure BIND

Now the main configuration file in BIND is named.conf, however named.conf.local is already included in named.conf and its there for customized configuration, so we will edit named.conf.local and we will add our zones, here I added a zone camed tm.local as well as a reverse zone for
vi /etc/bind/named.conf.local
zone "tm.local" {
type master;
file "/etc/bind/zones/tm.local.db";

zone "" {
type master;
file "/etc/bind/zones/";
Please note that if you want to add a comment in named.conf or named.conf.local use //, also you can see above the zone file for tm.local is called tm.local.db and is located in /etc/bind/zone, the most important thing that the zone file uses ; as the prefix for a comment and not //, as I saw confusions in a lot of forums so I thought to add it here - (same for the reverse zone).

12 Configure the Zones

We will start with the zone tm.local
mkdir /etc/bind/zones
vi /etc/bind/zones/tm.local.db
$TTL 1500
@  IN SOA root (
2007062703        ;serial
28800             ;refresh
3600              ;retry
604800            ;expire
38400 )           ;minimum 25 minutes
tm.local.      IN      NS
server1        IN      A
webserver1     IN      A
webserver2     IN      A
loadb1         IN      A
loadb2         IN      A
tm.local.      IN      MX      10

Feel free to replace the above zone name (tm.local) or your dns server name (server1) as needed, just note the . DOT after the zone name.
Now let's go ahead with the reverse zone.
vi /etc/bind/zones/
$TTL 1500
@  IN SOA root (
2007062703        ;serial
28800             ;refresh
3600              ;retry
604800            ;expire
38400 )           ;minimum 25 minutes

IN    NS
100                  IN    PTR
103                  IN    PTR
104                  IN    PTR
101                  IN    PTR
102                  IN    PTR

Now configure the server to forward any requests to your ISP server so it case resolve external IPs.
vi /etc/bind/named.conf.options
Uncomment the forwarder section to look like this:
forwarders {
# Replace the address below with the address of your ISP DNS server;

13 Configure the server to use itself as DNS

vi /etc/resolv.conf
search tm.local

XDMCP com Xming no Windows

É um tipo de RDP com servidor linux.

Veja instruções no link:

Atualizações de Segurança do Windows

Para obter as atualizações (patches) de segurança mais recentes do windows utilize o link abaixo - As atualizações de segurança estão disponíveis nos arquivos de imagem do DVD5 ISO-9660 pelo Centro de Download da Microsoft.

SSH Tutorial for Linux

SSH Tutorial for Linux

No link:

Configurações e Instalações Interessantes

Configurações e Instalações Interessantes no site :

Instalando Flash Player no Linux

Baixe o arquivo de instalação do site:

Ou o arquivo diretamente com


Para instalar siga os passos:
  1. Salve o arquivo .tar.gz na sua área de trabalho e espere o download do arquivo ser finalizado.
  2. Abra o arquivo. Um diretório chamado install_flash_player_9_linux será criado.
  3. No terminal, navegue nesse diretório e digite /flashplayer-installer para executar o instalador. Clique em Enter. O instalador pedirá para que você encerre seu(s) navegador(es).
  4. Uma vez que a instalação for finalizada, o plug-in será instalado em seu navegador Mozilla. Para verificar, inicie o Mozilla e escolha Ajuda > sobre plug-ins no menu do navegador.
Navegando pela Net - All Rights Reserved
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